Worms (Internal Parasites)
This can happen very fast, especially if you do not rotate fields and the grass is over eaten. It can also happen if you do not seperate you new animals from you herd before the are wormer and pass your farm idea of being in good health. These parasites also can happen when the grass just starts to grow or even when there is a long rainy period.
To check for worms either do a fecal exam, check eyelids (there is a class offered by UGA and you must take it to get the chart to use for reading the worm content), or check gums. You are looking at the pinksness in these areas and when it gets white the worms are taking the blood away. If the gums aren't dark pink, worming is in order.
Please understand that I am certified to check my herd adn you need to take a class to get certified. I am just making a statement of how I manage mine. If your goat normally has a dark tail and it is suddenly pale, worming is probably in order. We use the following (using a white wormer at least once in every three wormings). Do understand that a certain amount of worm is ok and that is different to every herd and even every farm. This is something that I truely believe in.
Here is a list that I use. I am Not saying it will work for you , but it works at my place
Check adults frequently for signs of parasites, especially during warm, moist times of the year, and worm accordingly. It is important not to under-dose when administering wormers, because over time this will create a resistance to the wormer causing it to become ineffective against parasites. Remember when you are looking at your animals there are signs such as paleness of the gums or lower eyelids, diarrhea, rough hair coat, or poor growth may indicate anemia and can be cause for alarm.
NANNIES - AFTER KIDDING
KIDDING - KIDS at birth
WEAK OR SLOW TO NURSE KIDS
Given to the expected Mothers 21 – 28 days before Giving Birth.
(This treatment – boosters - for our pregnant does gives passive immunity to kids that will last until the kid is 10 to 12 weeks old and capable of building its own immunities.)
Age of puberty - 7-10 months of age They can reproduce at this age.
Breeding weight, 60 to 75% of adult weight. You have to look at the dam to get a better idea.
length - 18-22 days
duration - 12-36 hours
signs tail - wagging, mounting, bleating and even urinating in bucks face.
Ovulation - 12 to 36 hours from onset of standing heat
Gestation length - 146 to 155 days
Breeding Season - August through January. It can be induced in other months.. (some individuals will breed anytime)
Age of puberty - 4-8 months
Breeding age - 8-10 months. Usually “if can reach then can breed”
Breeding season - all year
Breeding ratio - 30 to 80 does
A fullblood registered buck so that all resulting nanny kids can be registered as 50% and be kept for replacement if desired.
IMPORTANT PRODUCTION TRAITS
1. Adaptability: Ability to survive in given environment and bility to reproduce in given environment
2. Reproduction: Conception rate, Kidding and number of offspring, Non-seasonality
3. Growth rate: Pre-weaning gain, Post-weaning gain
4. Carcass Characteristics
Temperature - 101.7 - 104.5 F
Heart rate - 70 -80/minute
Respiration rate - 12-15/minute
Ruminal movements - 1-1.5 /minute
RULES FOR GOAT HEALTH
a. Provide proper housing
b. Practice good sanitation
c. Provide adequate nutrition
d. Provide clean water
e. Observe how much feed they eat
f. Observe/know your animals
g. Observe the feces of your animals
h. Become familiar with the common diseases
i. Investigate the source of strange smells
j. Use your veterinarian for diagnosis
A HEALTHY GOAT
a. Eats well
b. Chews its cud
c. Has a shiny coat
d. Has strong legs and feet
e. Is sociable
f. Has bright and clear eyes.
SIGNS OF ILLNESS
a. Off feed, water, Diarrhea
b. No sign of cud chewing, runny eyes
c. Standing apart from group
e. Rough hair coat, hair falling out
f. Abnormal temperature, swelling on any part of body
g. Heavy mucous in nose & mouth, Pale mucosa of eyes and mouth
KID HEALTH PRACTICE 1. At Birth: Read vaccination program and follow, Make sure kids get colostrum and the teets are open on the nanny, Cold kids, warm and give 5cc dextrose orally. Milk nanny and keep them on her milk so you can return the kids to her, Start creep feed using rumensin to avoid coccidiosis and increase weight gain 2. Casteration: Knife, Emasulator, Elastrator The question is why castrate if you will sell the buck kids at weaning time as at the present wethers do not bring any more money than the billy kids. If you creep feed your kids, these guys will be ready for the market at three months when you wean them, keep the nannies on their mother for four months to give them the extra growth to sell them or keep them for replacements.
When is my goat going to give birth. This is a question that we all ask, that is if your breeding goats. I have heard many ways to tell if they ate going to give birth, but there is one the I truly believe in. the loss of the ligament test….. You see goats have two ligaments, one to either side of their tail base, connecting spine to pin bones. This is present in both does and buck. Remember we are talking about birthing so do not get side tracked.
When a doe is within the 12 hour window (12 hours of labor), these ligaments soften and are 'lost', to accommodate the kids' movement through the birth canal. Goats do NOT lose them for much longer than 12 hours unless there is a problem arranging the kids, simply because those ligaments are needed for structural support and they would not be able to function long with them completely lost. Most likely when the doe is not in labor and you think the ligaments are 'gone', the ligaments have simply shifted within the last week or so of kidding and become harder to find among fat deposits or longer hair - and so are thought to be 'lost' for a week or more before kidding. If you feel around a bit, you'll find them. This shifting is gradual, however, and when they 'lose' their ligaments they will look and feel very different overnight or within a few hours.
If the ligaments have truly been gone on a doe of mine for more than 12 hours, I go invasive to see what the holdup is. The holdup could create problems and death in both the mom and kids. If the ligaments are gone she'll be in true labor, and the cervix will also dilate normally, so it will be possible to go check. A mispresented kid and/or a very large kid was blocking the canal and wasn't moving properly, so the doe never started pushing or couldn't push a lot (otherwise her uterus would probably rupture).
Also, goats will 'drop' their babies, as ligaments soften in their belly, too. This allows for the kids to reposition to the birthing canal and position. The 'dropped' belly will look sunken in. This is the way I can tell that I will be having “Babies on the Ground”.
I know there are terms that might have been used that be hard to follow. I have added a section on terms definitions that might help.
If you have a question about anything that deals with goats or want to set up a visit all you have to do is ask. We hope to hear from you soon.
There are a few things that you need to remember.
" There are things that we use at our farm and works does not mean it will work on your farm."