Medication for Goats and What They Are Used For.

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Page 2 -Medication and Conditions- How to treat a sick goat

Medication & Conditions (Page 1)

Here is a list of animal medication. This is a list of goat medication for a farm, at least it is a start. 


· A-180 (danofloxacin) - Vet prescription. Injectable respiratory antibiotic. Neither I nor my vet like this product's use with goats. Nuflor Gold and Excenel RTU have worked better for us.


· Albadry Plus - Teat infusion medication containing procaine penicillin and novobiocin sodium for treating mastitis in non-lactating goats and drying up lactating goats. Can be used topically on staph infections. Best to have the udder's contents tested to find out which organism is causing the infection so you can choose best antibiotic.


· ALBON (Prescription): Sulfadimethoxine (or sulphadimethoxine, trade names Di-Methox or Albon) is a long-lasting sulfonamide antimicrobial medication used in veterinary medicine. It is used to treat many infections, including respiratory, urinary tract, enteric, and soft tissue infections and can be given as a standalone or combined with ormetoprim to broaden the target range. Like all sulfamides, sulfadimethoxine inhibits bacterial synthesis of folic acid by acting as a competitive inhibitor against PABA. It is the most common drug prescribed to dogs who have coccidiosis. 


· Albon 40% Injectable - Over-the-counter and dosed orally to treat coccidiosis. 1.56 cc given orally on first day per 25 pounds bodyweight; days 2-5, dose at .78 cc per 25 pounds bodyweight. Mix with Nutri-Drench or similar product for palatability.


· Ammonium Chloride (OTC) This is usually mixed with feed. It can also be drenched. If you have buck that has URINARY CALCULI this can be used to help in passing of the stones. 


· Amino Acids: Play an important role in nutrition and utilization. 


· Anemia: Most anemia is caused by worms that are present in the goats’ body. This is because they suck the blood of the animal they are in. We have found several treatments for anemia and have been told many ways to treat it.

We give an adult dose (5 cc) of Geritol for three days then an adult dose (roughly 5 cc) of Geritol every other day for a week. This is an easy OTC treatment and is given orally to the goat. It is easily given, and the vitamins are water soluble and will be expelled if it is not needed. Sometimes I use Red Cell to treat anemia when the animal looks bad. It really stinks, and the goats don't like it at all. Be prepared to be wearing some of it you give it to your goat. It is also made from animal byproduct and really should not be used according to some of the things I have read, but if I need to really save it I will use it. If using Red Cell for horses; watch the long-term use of this as copper is high but given for 45 days. "Magic" is an excellent source of iron. 


· Arcanobacterium pyogenes -Arcanobacterium pyogenes, also known as Actinomyces Pyogenes, is an abscess-causing bacteria commonly found in the mucous membranes of goats where it is kept in check until something happens that unleashes its infective capabilities. A. Pyogenes is often the bacteria present in thorn, barbed wire, horn, and other externally-caused injuries that develop into abscesses. But there are other life-threatening infections that A. Pyogenes is responsible for that are not readily recognizable to the producer. A. Pyogenes can cause lung abscesses that develop in conjunction with and secondary to Pasteurella pneumonia. It can also cause chronic mastitis, post-kidding uterine infections, liver abscesses, foot rot, and weight loss. There are no effective vaccines available against A. Pyogenes in goats or other animals. 


· Banamine (FluMeglumine) (Prescription) This is an anti-inflammatory that can be used to bring down fever and stop severe diarrhea in small kids, by calming the gut in the digestive illness and relieve pain and soreness. I have been told not to use it more than once in 24 hours for 5 days because it builds up in the vital organs and will cause permanent damage. I was also told that an exception was due to high temp. you can split the dosage treatment every 8 to 12 hours. The dosage is 1cc per 100 lbs. IM. REFRIGERATED 


· Bar- Guard- 99 (OTC) This is used in newborns against scours that is caused by K99 strains of E.coli. I was told that this could be used to help prevent Floppy Kid and that this needs to be given in the amount of 2cc right after colostrum is received from the mother


· Baycox : (toltrazuril) 5% Oral Suspension (Prescription) Baycox® is indicated for the treatment of preclinical coccidiosis due to Isospora suis in neonatal piglets, for the prevention of clinical signs of coccidiosis and reduction of coccidian shedding in lambs on farms with a confirmed history of coccidiosis caused by Eimeria crandallis and Eimeria ovinoidalis, and for the prevention of clinical signs of coccidiosis and reduction of coccidian shedding in calves on farms with a confirmed history of coccidiosis caused by Eimeria bovis and Eimeria zuernii. Dosage: Shake well before use. Each animal should be treated with a single dose of 20 mg toltrazuril/kg body weight corresponding to 1 mL Baycox® per 2.5 kg body weight. To obtain maximum benefit, sheep should be treated in the prepatent period before the expected onset of clinical signs. The prepatent period of Eimeria ovinoidalis is 12-15 days and the prepatent period of Eimeria crandalis is 15-20 days. If animals are to be treated collectively rather than individually, they should be grouped according to their body weight and dosed accordingly, in order to avoid under- or overdosing. In order to maximize effectiveness of Baycox® in lambs it is important to time therapy according to individual farm management and lifecycle of the organism involved.


· Baytril : (Enrofloxacin 2.27%) (Prescription)THIS IS NOT APPROVED FOR GOATS BY THE FDA. This is broad spectrum antibiotic that is the last call. It comes in two forms injectable and pills. 1cc per 20 lbs. for 5 days. Suppose to be good for the cut issues. The appropriate IM dosage is 4 cc's per 100 lbs. of body weight for five consecutive days. This medication is very effective against gut-related illnesses and works synergistically (better together than individually) with SMZ (sulfadimethoxazine with trimethoprim). Some jurisdictions prohibit use of Baytril or Baytril 100 in any form (injectable or tablets) in food-production animals because the withdrawal time from meat and milk has not been determined. Great for treating Joint Ill when no other antibiotic works. If you have a sick goat on which no other antibiotic is working, Baytril 100 is the drug of last resort. Do not use without vet approval and supervision.


· Benzathine Penicillin (long-acting penicillin) - Over-the-counter product used as antibiotic only in specific situations. This medication has been over-used for years and is not effective against many problems for that reason. Used at Onion Creek Ranch for protection against infection in the dam after difficult births and for injuries. Dosage is 5 cc per 100 lbs. body weight IM for five consecutive days. Penicillin is also used in high dosages in conjunction with Thiamine (Vitamin B1) to treat listeria and goat polio. Must be stored under refrigeration.


· Beet Pulp, Shredded - While this isn't a medication, I mention it because it is useful and often misused. I use shredded beet pulp to add fiber to the rumen of old goats whose teeth have begun to wear. This is in addition to their normal feed, not in place of it.


· Biosol (Neomycin Sulfate) - Over-the-counter sulfa-based antibiotic for using with scouring kids and adults when Coccidiosis is not the underlying illness. Works effectively against E.Coli and other digestive-system bacterial infections. For kids, give 3 cc orally every 12 hours until diarrhea has stopped, and feces is normal. Dosage: For adult goats, use 5 cc to 10 cc orally and as directed for usage in kids. Do not overdose; constipation can result. Do not stop diarrhea until you know its cause. Sometimes diarrhea is the body's way of eliminating toxins.


· Black Oil Sunflower Seeds (BOSS) - Another non-medication, it is useful to add fat to the diet of thin and/or old goats. BOSS is 25% fat. Top-dress the feed with BOSS.


· B COMPLEX  Vitamin Fortified   This product may be substituted for Thiamine, although the dosage is twice as much as this contains only 100 mg/ml of Thiamine, upping the dose to 4 cc. An effective tool when dealing with a goat that is off it’s feed, as this stimulates appetite, at 2cc IM or SQ, and when used in the larger doses, stimulates the natural immune system. Note: it is advised that this product be stored away from sunlight. No milk withdrawl.


· BENADRYL LIQUID  CHILDREN’S *** (Diphenhydramine Hydrochloride Antihistamine) Temporarily relives symptoms of allergies to dust and pollen, including watery eyes, coughing, clear mucus discharge and sneezing. Also helps on the rare occasions when a goat will rub against vegetation that causes a skin irritation and itching. Give orally. Not for use in newborns and not more than 2 cc for a baby. 5-15 cc, depending on size of older goat, every 6 hours as needed, but best if dosing does not extend beyond 5 consecutive days. May make the goat sleepy, but it is very effective. No withdrawl time on milk.


· Benzathine Penicillin (Long Acting) (OTC) This is a must to have. It is cheap also. This has been overused because it is so easily bought. It is a good one for UTI and must be REFRIGERATED


· BioMycin (LA200) ( OTC) This can be used if you go inside a doe to help on birthing. It can also use when hoof rot is found while you are trimming feet. 


· Biosol (OTC)This is Neomycin Sulfate 200 mg per ml and is used to control and treat scours. It can easily be added to water and can treat the whole herd at once. It usually is given 2cc for kids and 4cc for larger kids and up to 7cc for grown goats. It is given orally 


· BoSe (not MuSe) - Vet prescription. (A horse product, MuSe is too strong and should not be used with goats.) Injectable medication for selenium deficiency (white muscle disease, aka nutritional muscular distrophy). Since selenium deficiency exists at different levels throughout the United States. Most of the East Coast, down to Florida and westward through the Great Lakes region, plus the West Coast, including California and parts of Nevada and Idaho, are selenium deficient to different degrees. Selenium deficiency usually shows itself in the form of weak rear legs in kids. Older goats don't put on weight, have weak legs, and generally stay in poor condition and poor health. Selenium is toxic at low dosages, and the dosing margin of safety is narrow. The addition of selenium to feed is controlled by US law. In some areas, producers only need to provide loose minerals containing selenium. In other regions, selenium injections are necessary. When BoSe injections are required, they are usually given at birth and again at one month of age (one-half cc IM). Pregnant does receive injections four to six weeks before kidding, and bucks are vaccinated twice a year. Adult dosage of BoSe is 2-1/2 cc per 100 lbs bodyweight given IM. It is easy to overdose selenium.


· Bovi Sera:  Bovi-Sera Serum Antibodies from Colorado – For use as an aid in the prevention and treatment of enteric and respiratory conditions in cattle and sheep caused by Arcanobacterium pyogenes, E. coli, Mannheimia haemolytica, Pasteurella multocida and Salmonella typhimurium. Administer IM or subque. Prevention: Calves - 20-40 ml as soon as possible after birth; Cattle - 50-75 ml; Sheep - 10-15 ml. Treatment: Calves - 40-100 ml; Cattle - 75-150 ml; Sheep - 20-40 ml. Administer at 12-24-hour intervals until improvement is noted. Limit injections to 10 ml per injection site. 21 day slaughter withdrawal.

 

· C&D Anti-toxin - Over-the-counter made-for-goats product that can be safely used for many problems when they already exist. Severe diarrhea in very young kids, toxicity caused by plants, poisons (bites, overeating disease, bloat, ruminal acidosis, and ingestion of toxic subtances like azaleas and antifreeze are several examples), one of the products administered to combat Floppy Kid Syndrome . . . these are a few of the applications of this very versatile product. C&D Anti-toxin provides short-term protection (about 12 hours) but works quickly towards solving the immediate problem. Follow label directions. Must be refrigerated. Freezes at very high temperatures. C&D Anti-toxin negates any protection previously given by the CD/T vaccine, so you must wait for at least five days after completion of C&D Anti-toxin therapy and re-vaccinate the animal with the initial CD/T vaccine injection plus the booster 30 days thereafter. Must-have medication. Always have on hand. There is no substitute.


· CD/T vaccine (Clostridium Perfringens Types C&D + Tetanus Toxoid Vaccine) - Over-the-counter made-for-goats product that provides long-term protection against overeating disease (types C&D) and tetanus. Kids of one to three months of age and all newly-purchased animals regardless of age should be vaccinated with 2 cc and then a second vaccination should be given 30 days later. Two injections 30 days apart are required in order to provide long-term protection. Annually thereafter, one injection of 2 cc per goat will renew the protection. Give SQ. It may cause an injection-site abscess, which is an indication of the body's positive reaction to the vaccine. In most cases, the abscess goes away in time.


· Caseous Lymphadenitis (CL) vaccine - Introduced in May 2012 by Texas Vet Lab of San Angelo, Texas. See the December 2015 issue of Meat Goat Mania for articles on how to use this very effective vaccine. Over the counter in some states; prescription item in other states. Not available yet in a few states. Jeffers can tell you what each state requires. Call 1-800-533-3377 and ask to speak with their CL vaccine expert.


· Chondroprotec - A skin degrowing medication. Applied topically. The January 2013 issue of Meat Goat Mania has an article and pictures of this amazing product. Vet prescription.


· CHX Guard LA (.12% Chlorhexidine Glluconate ) (Prescription) This is a medication that is used to treat Sore Mouth. This contains an effective antibacterial agent in a gel. It is an adhesive-based gel adheres to the gum and helps in increasing the effectiveness of the medication 


· Colostrum Supplements and Replacer (OTC) This is the first thing the kid needs to drink and is usually supplied by the mother. Newborns must have colostrum during the first few hours of life, and while their own dam’s is best, if this is not possible for whatever reason, you should keep colostrum in your freezer. Even if the colostrum is not from their dam, it is from your specific location, and will provide the necessary immunities. Milk each dam out completely at 24 hours after birthing and freeze. I measure it into 4 or 8- ounce amounts. Then double ziplock-bag the colostrum, and date the bag. This stays good in the freezer for 2 years. Do not use colostrum beyond the kid’s first 24 hours, as they are no longer able to absorb it, and they then require milk. If you do not have frozen colostrum you will have to buy a commercial goat colostrum replacer, not one from a cow. If this is the case, colostrum supplements along with the colostrum replacer is a good idea. Note: Goat colostrum is also viable for dogs or cats, or any mammal, and if you have too much on hand, your vet may be grateful to have some offered to them for their freezer! aand 24 hours of the kids’ life. You must then switch to goat milk or sometime of milk replacer.


· CoRid  (OTC) This is used to treat Coccidious. This is mixed into the water that the goat is drinking. Cydectin (OTC) A cattle pour-on dewormer. Use a drench on goats. Works against internal and external parasites. Dosage: We drench with 1cc per 15 lbs.


· CYDECTIN  *** (Moxidectin 5 mg/ml) This is the top of the line in de-wormers. Do not use for so long that the animals become immune, as there is nothing above this to go to. It is listed as a pour-on for cattle, and you can use it topically for treatment of lice and external parasites. For external use, distribute 1-3 cc evenly from base of neck to tail head, along spine, depending on size of goat. The purple coloring will go away on its own. External use is worthless for internal parasites however. For internal parasites use at a rate of 1 cc per 22 lbs., unless treating for Humuncous Contortus or Screw Worms. In that case use at a rate of 1 cc per 11 pounds. Re-worm again 10-14 days later, to catch worms hatching out, as any wormer will only get the adult worms and not touch the larva. Wear gloves as this will absorb through your skin and can turn you inside out if you absorb too much of it! 72-hour milk withdrawl.


· Dexamethasone (Prescription) Can be used to induce labor if required in a doe after day 141 of pregnancy. Also used to improve appetite after kidding. Anti-inflammatory (especially for joint pain and itchy skin) Immune-suppression (treatment of conditions where the immune system is destructively hyperactive. Higher doses are required to suppress the immune system) Central Nervous System Disorders (usually after trauma or after a disc episode to relieve swelling in the brain or spinal cord) Shock (steroids seem to help improve circulation) It is important to always give an antibiotic when you give Dexamethasone, because it lowers immunity for a time 


· Clostridia Diseases. We use Covexin 8 to vaccinate for Clostridial Diseases. There are other medicines that can be used. Most common is CD/T by Bayer. We vaccinate at three months and again two weeks later.

****Be sure to give the shot SQ (2 cc) prior to banding wethers to prevent tetanus. *** 

Revaccinate yearly (always 2 cc) or 3 to 4 weeks before a doe kids to pass the immunity on to the kids.

You can treat weaker babies with 5 cc CD Antitoxin shortly after birth and again at 6 weeks.

At birth we administer the 5 cc orally; at 6 weeks we administer SQ. If the babies show signs of e-coli, we give 5 cc penicillin with the CD Antitoxin. Bottle babies are treated every 2 weeks.) 

We used to use CD&T vaccine and as I stated above we use Covexin 8. This is the schedule that I give · ​4 Weeks & 7 Weeks Booster 2 x a year 6 month apart. . 


· Coccidia:  coccidia as severely weakened animals, even adults often will have a flare up. Keep animal comfortable and feed good quality leafy alfalfa or a good quality hay. I have also injected iron (OTC). This works great for a starting punch. I use 5 cc twice a day for three days. 


· Cydectin (Moxidectin)(OTC) Ready to use topical formulation for control of roundworms, lungworms, grubs, lice and mites in cattle. Also provides 7 days of persistent activity against horn flies. No slaughter or milk withdrawal. 


· Dectomax (OTC) Approved and labeled for up to 21 days control against Ostertagia ostertagi - one of the most damaging internal parasites. Delays accumulation of adult worms, subsequently reducing the number of parasite eggs shed onto pasture. No other single product controls a broader spectrum of internal and external parasites, including 36 stages of adult parasites, L4 larvae and inhibited larvae, mange mites and sucking lice.


· Dewormers, Feed-based - Feed-based dewormers are usually not effective. Dewormers are dosed based on the goat's bodyweight; there is no accurate way to do this with feed-based dewormers. Plus the goat needing the dewormer the worst will also be the least aggressive goat who will get less feed, therefore a lower dosage of the feed-based dewormer. Unless you can control the precise amount of feed that each goat receives, I recommend against using feed-based dewormers.


· Dewormers - There are multiple classes of dewormers. Some still kill stomach worms; many are no longer effective. Generally speaking, the white-colored dewormers (Safeguard/Panacur and Valbazen) no longer kill stomach worms in much of the USA. All dewormers should be given orally, regardless of package directions. See my article on Deworming & Vaccination Schedules on the Articles page at www.tennesseemeatgoats.com.

· Dexamethasone - Vet prescription. 

Cortico-steroid. Use sparingly and under the direction of a vet. Dex can have bad side effects. Used for swelling and inflammation after infection is under control. Do not use if broken bones exist; Dex interferes with bone repair. Do not use on pregnant does unless you are trying to induce labor. Used to induce labor in pregnant does when the slow introduction of labor over a 48-to-72-hour period is desired (pregnancy diseases like Pregnancy Toxemia & Ketosis). Dex interferes with the functioning of the goat's immune system. Usage of this drug must be tapered off slowly; serious problems can occur if Dex is given in large amounts and then suddenly stopped. Tapering off over five days is a normal procedure, i.e. reducing the dosage each day for five consecutive days. Dosage varies depending upon the problem being treated. Keeps best in hot climates when refrigerated.


· Dextrose Solution (50%) - This over-the-counter IV product in a bottle is used orally with weak newborns by slowly dropping one or two cc in the mouth and under the tongue for quick energy. Can be mixed half and half with water and offered short-term to weak goats or kids who are either having trouble digesting milk or have overeaten on milk (Floppy Kid Syndrome) and need to be taken off milk for several days u


· Diarrhea. Most diarrhea is caused by several things: change in diet, worms, or coccidiosis. The first thing we do for diarrhea is trying to stop it; then we determine the cause. We use Kaopectin first due to the cost. This comes in a gallon jug and is labeled for goats. We give, depending on the size of the goat, 3 to 5 cc. Even another cure we've discovered is giving equal parts Pepto Bismol mixed with BioSol (neomycin sulfate). This we will give twice a day; the diarrhea is normally gone within 24 hours. If the suspected cause of the problem is E. coli or salmonella, we will also give 5 to 10 cc penicillin orally.


· Dopram V - Vet prescription. (May have to be compounded by a pharmacy as it may no longer be available commercially.) Eliminates respiratory distress in newborns caused by troubled births, including C-sections. Drop 2/10 cc under kid's tongue immediately upon birth to stimulate lung activity. Use on "pulled" kids since the normal squeezing of the body during the delivery process is altered. This liquid medication keeps best under refrigeration. 


· Draxxin (tulothromycin) - Vet prescription. Injectable respiratory antibiotic. Very expensive product that purports to be a one-time-only usage antibiotic. Because goats have the fastest metabolism of all ruminants, they need to be dosed daily for five days. Nuflor Gold and Excenel RTU given daily for five days work in my herd and are far less expensive.


· Dyne - Over-the-counter oral high-calorie food supplement for animals off feed or needing quick energy. Must-have product.


· CALCIUM GLUCONATE 23% SOLUTION : A handy item to have on hand in case of Milk Fever and/or Floppy Kid Syndrome. This is a quick way to introduce Calcium and electrolytes right after the dam kids, if needed, SQ. Use in conjunction with a Vitamin A and D shot, or the Calcium won’t be absorbed properly. Can repeat the Calcium Gluconate shot daily for 3-5 days, if needed, but only one Vitamin A and D shot is necessary. No effect on the milk as this is absorbed into the doe’s body. Look or a small bottle, as you don’t need it often.


· Cobalt Deficiency in Goat Goats use cobalt to synthesize Vitamin B12. This vitamin is needed to allow the hemoglobin in the red blood cells to take up iron. A shortage of Vitamin B12 causes anemia. If the goat has a high level of internal parasites, they will steal the Vitamin B12 after it is synthesized in the gut and before it is absorbed by the goat’s tissues. Legumes prevent the synthesis of Vitamin B12. Low-fiber diets discourage the proliferation of the bacteria which manufacture Vitamin B12. Some soils are totally lacking in cobalt, some are marginal, some have plenty of cobalt, but the lime content of the soil blocks the cobalt from being taken up by the plants. Most of New Zealand comes into one or other of these groups. Cobalt deficiency is found world-wide, which is reflected in the number of names severe life-threatening cobalt deficiency is known by. e.g. pine, sickness, vanquish, Nakuruitis, Coast disease, and Salt sickness. Severely affected animals fail to thrive, become emaciated and anemic and will eventually collapse and die of starvation because the food they are eating cannot be processed by their diminishing bacterial flora or absorbed by a bloodless gut. Breeding problems occur as the females cannot hold to service. White liver disease has been recorded in goats in New Zealand. Of the domestic ruminants, sheep need twice as much cobalt as cattle, and goats require 4 to 6 times as much cobalt as sheep. Because a goat eats twice as much as a sheep, its diet need only contain twice to three times as much cobalt as the sheep needs. Feral goats will seek out plants (usually considered noxious weeds) which concentrate cobalt. Farmed goats are unlikely to suffer life-threatening cobalt deficiency because they are supplied with mineralized salt blocks, but cobalt levels can still be so low that they severely depress production. A multi-mineral lick is formulated according to the proportions needed for optimum health. But if you give a balanced mineral supplement to goats whose forage is minerally *un*-balanced, the goats are still minerally unbalanced. There is *never* enough cobalt for goats in the licks. It is necessary to give them the missing minerals without giving them more of those their diet already contains, if you want to get them in balance. 

Symptoms of cobalt deficiency

1. The most obvious sign of cobalt deficiency in goats which look healthy is the smell, like nail-varnish remover but sweeter, or over-ripe pears. 

2. Seriously affected goats lose weight, with harsh coats. 

3. Acetonemia (Ketosis) may be triggered by cobalt deficiency. Goats with marginal cobalt deficiency may smell like this only in the breeding season or when pregnant. Sharp-tasting milk, very low butter fats, and sometimes 

4. Smooth hair becomes curly, and the winter coat is not shed until late summer (instead of spring). The new coat may be sparse and slow-growing (in drought because there is no Vitamin A in the herbage this is accentuated) and will become curly in a few weeks. Unlike copper deficiency the coat doesn't usually fade. 

5. sub-clinical mastitis are indications of cobalt deficiency. 

6. As the goat's ability to digest its food efficiently becomes impaired it looks hunched. 

Treatment: 1. You can administer cobalt boluses three-monthly. These are slow-release and stay in the rumen. Alternatively, you can by-pass the cobalt altogether and give If you prefer less expensive options, you can try one of the following: 

Treatment: 2. 1. Make up a 1% solution of cobalt sulphate. [1 tablespoon cobalt sulphate to 3 liters of water.] Drench each adult goat (1 year up) with 20 mls twice daily. Suckling kids should not need it as they will get the extra Vitamin B12 in the milk. Weaned kids should get 10 mls twice daily. This is labor-intensive, but where the animals have been deficient to the point of severe anemia it is better to administer low frequent doses to allow the rumen flora to adjust gradually to the increased cobalt. 2. Dissolve 4 teaspoons of cobalt sulphate in 120 mls of water. To each 10 liters of drinking water, add 2 mls of cobalt sulphate concentrate. 3. Make up a solution of 8.3% cobalt sulphate. [1 teaspoon cobalt sulphate to 600 mls water.] The drench for each adult goat is 5 mls per fortnight. This recipe was used successfully in a commercial milking herd in Canterbury. If you are using cobalt carbonate instead of cobalt sulphate, you need to know that · Cobalt carbonate is 50% cobalt. · Cobalt sulphate is 38% cobalt. Therefore, you may need to adjust the strength of the solution you use, or the dose, but I doubt this is necessary because both the solution and dose are well below toxicity level. Some goats with depressed appetites were slow to improve when the cobalt treatment started. Giving the affected goats a teaspoonful of yeast or yoghurt (or both) revved the rumen flora into action more quickly.

***** Goats on a high-legume diet (and this includes a number of "noxious" weeds, so people with land clearance herds take note) require extra cobalt because the calcium content of the feed blocks the uptake of cobalt. Similarly, limed soil blocks the uptake of cobalt, rendering the fodder grown on it deficient. Soil can be treated with cobalt, but this releases molybdenum which blocks the uptake of copper. With goats’ requirements of cobalt, it is probably simpler to boost the goats than treat the soil. 


· CMPK drench : Calcium, Magnesium, Phosphorus and Potassium, all things a toxic doe can become deficient in.

 

· Coccidiosis. : There are several "cures" for Coccidiosis. Prevention, though, is the best medicine and cost a lot less in the long run.. We feed either a feed medicated with decoquinate or monensin. Decoquinate is for the prevention of coccidiosis in young goats caused by Eimeria christenseni and Elmeria ninakohlyakimovae (I hope I spelled this correctly). I personally have not used it, but I have heard this works well. I do keep it in mind because sometimes you must pull out things that you normally do not use in a bad case situation. Monensin is for the prevention of coccidiosis caused by Elmeria crandalis, Elmeria christenseni, and Elmeria ninakohyakimovae. ******Another preventative measure is to ensure feed and watering troughs are clean. I always say if it looks like water I would not drink then why are we giving it to our animals. Remember they need clean water at all time to keep their rumen working correctly. (no goat berries).***** Medicines to treat coccidiosis include: · Corid · SMZ tablets · Decoquinate 


· Colostrum Supplements and Replacers - Do not confuse these two types of products. Newborns must have colostrum during the first hours after birth. If the dam is colostrum deficient, the producer must use a colostrum replacer. The best colostrum replacer is frozen colostrum taken from does on your property who have already kidded. This colostrum will have the immunities needed for your particular location. If you don't have a supply of frozen colostrum, then you must use a commercially-prepared goat colostrum replacer. In such instances, usage of colostrum supplements along with the replacer is often helpful.


· Diatomaceous  Earth (OTC) Diatomaceous Earth liberally spread in/around the barn kills fly larvae and significantly reduces the number of flies in the barn. I have not had great results with it but as the saying goes it might work on your farm and not sure if it is worth the money, but when the flies get bad I will try anything. This is an ongoing battle. I feel like I have tried everything known to man. The best thing is to keep your areas as clean as you can. Remember the flies need a place to grow and wet areas with good goat fertilizer makes a great home. 


· Dopram (Prescription) Eliminates respiratory distress in newborns caused by troubled births, including C-sections. Drop 2/10 cc under kid's tongue immediately upon birth to stimulate long activity. May also be used when kids are pulled out of their dams. Refrigerate. 


· E.coli –E Coli : This is probably the most common reason for scours in young kids, 5 days old and under usually. (Not to say it cannot happen in older kids and adults, but this is the age group most commonly affected.) The scours in this case may be bright yellow or whitish and watery, because of the excess fluids the intestines are producing (which is what causes dehydration). There may or may not be a fever, and often you will find a sub normal temperature. The baby will more than likely stand with a "hunched" appearance, holding tail and head in a lower than normal position. The kid may act hungry but will not eat aggressively. Blindness in advanced cases is often noted. Other symptoms can include; abdominal pain and severe cramps, depression, weakness, and dehydration. 


· Epinephrine (OTC) Never be without it. Used to counteract shock in animals from other medication. Always carry it with you when giving injections. Dosage is 1 cc SQ per 100 lbs.

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· Estrumate: ( Prescription) termination of normal and abnormal pregnancy and ovarian luteal cysts. Half a cc IM on day 11 after the accidental breeding Ivomec 1% cattle injectable (OTC)  For eliminating stomach worms. A clear, oily liquid works best if used orally at a rate of 1 cc per 75 lbs. Do not under dose. Achieves a quicker "kill" via oral dosing.


· Ferrodex-100 Iron Dextran Injectable is an injectable given to piglets at 2 days. We have found a 2 cc shot no more often than every other day for a week seems to be most effective. It is possible to overdose with iron, so we use this sparingly. As with most drugs, this is off-label for goats so there is no approved dosage. I use this as last resort. Give daily doses of Fortified Vitamin B Complex (this is a OTC) sub Q for about 10 days, and Vitamin B12(a prescription) twice a week for 2 weeks and watch out for flare up of weeks 


· Fluxixin Meglumine (reduces temperature and kills pain). Use in respiratory infections. 1cc per 100 lbs. Aspirin (children aspirin works well) or Children's Tylenol (liquid) Be careful in the use of it . Aspirin does thin the blood and should not be used when bleeding is present. I do not use a lot but have been told I have been told it works. It makes sense to me.


· Fleet's Enema or generic equivalent - Over-the-counter product that is useful for constipation and toxicity reactions to clean out the intestinal tract. If a doeling is born with her vagina turned inside out, use a children's Fleet's enema to move her bowels for the first time ("pass her plug") and the vagina will return to its proper position. Make sure to put the enema into the rectal opening -- not the vagina.


· Flies – External Parasites Dorset is an excellent product to eliminate lice and protect the goats from biting flies. It is "on label" for goats. This is a pour-on that really works! Gordon's Goat & Sheep Spray (insect control for goats, sheep and other farm animals). Lightly spray or use 2 oz. per adult goat; avoid eyes. 


· Fluxixin Meglumine (Prescription) Flu-Nix is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID). Flunixamine is used in cattle for the control of pyrexia associated with bovine respiratory disease (BRD), endotoxemia and acute bovine mastitis, and for the control of inflammation in endotoxemia. Flunixamine is used in horses for the alleviation of inflammation and pain associated with musculoskeletal disorders and for the alleviation of visceral pain associated with colic.


· Formalin (10% buffered formaldehyde) - Classified as a disinfectant, this product works well when injected into CL abscesses and is very effective in treating hoof rot/hoof scald. However, I am no longer recommending using Formalin but prefer rather lancing and cleaning out abscesses because too many goat raisers are not using it correctly.


· Fortified Vitamin B Complex - Over-the-counter product. This product can be used instead of Thiamine since it has 100 mg/ml thiamine in it. Products without "fortified" in the label have inadequate levels of thiamine. If such products must be used, then the dosage must be increased to achieve a thiamine level of 100 mg/ml. Example: If the product has only 25 mg/ml thiamine, then the dosage given must be multiplied by four. B vitamins are water soluble; a healthy rumen produces B vitamins daily. Dosage is 4 cc per 100 pounds bodyweight.


· GATORADE *** Excellent product for re-hydrating sick animals, regardless of age, and for balancing electrolytes and helping to restore proper Ph. Can be used as an oral drench, put into baby bottles for kids to suck, or mixed into drinking water. If using the powdered form, follow directions and mix with warm water, orange seems to be their favorite flavor of choice. Sometimes very helpful for getting goats to want to drink, when transported to shows. There are no restrictions on amounts or number of times you use it. Does not affect the milk.


· Gentamycin Sulfate - Injectable prescription antibiotic. Not authorized for use in all jurisdictions in food animals due to concern for antibiotic residue in meat. Works extremely well when used in conjunction with penicillin in the treatment of post-birthing infections and other bacterial infections. Mixed in equal parts with Dexamethazone and Sterile Water, the resulting product is a very effective eye spray for treating Pinkeye. Do not use on ulcerated eyes.


· Gentosin Spray - Topical prescription spray useful in treating Pinkeye in non-ulcerated eyes. See Gentamycin Sulfate.


· Goat NutriDrench - Oral quick energy supplement for stressed and/or off-feed goats. Contains many of the vitamins, minerals, and nutrients that a sick goat requires to survive its illness. Mixes well with propylene glycol or mineral oil for flavored dosing.


· Granulex - Topical spray for removing dead & dying skin. May not be available. Check with vet.


· HYDROGEN PEROXIDE *** A cheap and efficient product when cleaning wounds, and bar none, the best teat dip you can buy! For teat dipping, pour Hydrogen Peroxide into cap of bottle and dip each teat, after every milking. Pour the capful on the ground, making the cap self-cleaning. This kills the germs on the teat, and goes up into the milk tube to prevent germs from following that route. It prevents chapping and germs picked up through wet skin tissue, caused by dipping entire teat, as in other products, and negates any need for udder balms or sprays, which attract and hold germs. This information came directly from the head of the Mastitis Research Foundation. They test each product available for teat dipping, regardless of price or procedure, and he assured me that less is more! The cheapest brand of Hydrogen Peroxide is exactly the same as the most expensive, as this product was used when establishing the laws governing medical product labeling, so Dollar Store Hydrogen Peroxide is just perfect!


· Imodium AD - Do not use this anti-diarrheal with goats. 


· Ivermectin (OTC): Horse Wormer (1.87% Ivermectin) controls bots, large strongyles, small bloodworms, ascarids (roundworms), threadworms, pinworms, hairworms, lungworms, and large mouth stomach worms.


· Kaopectin (OTC)- first due to the cost. This is used for diarrhea. This comes in a gallon jug and is labeled for goats. We give, depending on the size of the goat, 3 to 5 cc.


· Keep’N On: a mixture of supportive vitamins, minerals and provides energy. If a doe’s Ketostix test strip indicates low ketone levels (5 to 15 on the stick), usually about 60 cc’s of the drench mixture given orally once a day via a drench gun is sufficient. Higher levels (40 or higher on the stick) giving 60 to 80 cc’s 3 to 4 times daily is usually sufficient to bring down the ketone levels within a day. If multiple daily drenching’s do not lower levels significantly and the stick does not show ‘large’, the doe is still eating and within 7 days of her due date, you can administer 1cc (IM) of dexamethasone daily for two days (to encourage development of the kid’s lungs) and then induce. If the doe continues to have ‘large’ readings on the Ketostix after two days of the drenching treatment, stops eating or appears weak, induction is no longer a matter of choice regardless of the stage of pregnancy. At this point, the doe should be offered all the grain/good hay she will eat. Inducing 


· Labor Use Drugs :  10 cc’s of dexamethasone (IM) and 2 cc’s Lutalyse (IM) to induce. Generally, the doe will kid within 24 to 48 hours. Continue to administer the drench during this period and 1-2 times daily for 2 days after kidding. Offer the doe a bucket of warm water with molasses after kidding. Keep a close eye on her after kidding to insure complete delivery of the afterbirth


· LA 200, Maxim 200, Biomycin (oxytetracyline 200 mg/ml) - Over-the-counter broad-spectrum antibiotic. Thick (use an 18-gauge needle and give SQ over the ribs) and may sting. Oxytetracycline 200 mg/ml must be used to treat abortion "storms." No vaccines are available to treat abortion diseases and no off-label vaccines are effective in preventing abortion diseases in goats. Oxytetracycline 200 mg/ml is the goat producer's only choice. Also used to treat Pinkeye, even in pregnant does, as an abortion organism can cause one strain of Pinkeye. Used both injectable and topically (in non-ulcerated eyes) for Pinkeye. Sometimes effective in treating hoof rot/hoof scald infections. Use 1 cc per 20 lbs. body weight SQ daily for a minimum of five consecutive days. The non-sting version of oxytetracycline 200 mg/ml is called Biomycin. Oxytetracycline 200 mg/ml is sold under several brand names; check the content label for correct 200 mg/ml strength. Turns a dark red when opened and air enters the bottle, but if kept under controlled climatic conditions and used before the expiration date, it should work fine.


· Lactated Ringers Solution - Vet prescription. For rehydrating kids and young goats. Comes in IV bag but use SQ. Using a 60 cc syringe with an 18 gauge needle attached, draw up LRS, warm in a pot of water, check temperature as you would a bottle of milk for proper heat, and inject 30 cc under the skin (SQ) at each shoulder. Can be used several times a day until the goat's electrolytes are in balance. Will be absorbed by the goat's body very quickly if dehydration is present. Can be used in conjunction with oral electrolytes (BounceBack/ReSorb). Refrigerate when storing or strange things will grow inside the bag. A must-have product.


· Lethargic. If a goat seems to have no energy, we give 3 cc Fortified Vitamin B Complex or if that is not easy to get a hold of you can used the children vitamins that you can buy at the store. These are water soluble vitamins and if the animal does not need it they will pee it out. 


· Levasole (OTC) Dewormer – Strong, older dewormer that is very strong. It contains levamisole phosphate and kills worms in a different way than Ivomec or Cydectin. We have used it for treating Bottle Jaw. Caution - if your animal has a strong dose of worms, you should first worm them with a milder dewormer a few days before using Levasole. If a large number of blood-sucking worms are killed quickly, the animal may bleed to death. Some breeders recommend deworming with Safeguard for several times before starting the Levasole. We have wormed pregnant does with it. 


· Lice: Symptoms: Anemia, off feed, biting at their tail, loose fur, rough coat, itching, if the animal has horns you can see little fur holes where they are scratching themselves, thin. Little black dots on the goats fur bouncing around. Lice are usually more common in the fall and winter months but if the weather is very dry in the summer they can thrive as well. Treatment: We use de-lice pour-on, put it in a squeeze bottle and go along all their backs careful not to put too much on. Sometimes some of them have a reaction to the treatment and loose some of their fur. But it always grows back. Sometimes we will use louse powder instead. No matter what treatment you use make sure to check the animals again in a few days and then weeks after to be certain the lice are not re-infesting or resistant to the treatment.


· Listeriosis : Listeriosis is a serious disease of many animals, goats and humans among them, due to a bacterium of widespread occurrence in soil, etc., particularly associated with eating contaminated silage (moldy hay). Infection can have various results - encephalitis, septicemia, abortion, and so on. Listeriosis is caused by the bacteria Listeria monocytogenes, found in soil, water, plant litter, silage and a goat's digestive tract. Listeriosis is brought on by feeding silage, sudden changes in kind of feed, parasitism, dramatic weather changes and advanced stages of pregnancy. Symptoms of listeriosis include - depression, decreased appetite, fever, leaning or stumbling or moving in one direction only, head pulled to flank with rigid neck, facial paralysis on one side, slack jaw, and drooling, abortions.  

Treatment for listeriosis is most often through the administration of Procaine penicillin every six hours for three to five days, then daily for an additional seven days. Signs and symptoms- Depression, fever, staggering, facial paralysis on one side, drooling, abortions, blindness. 

Treatment- HIGH doses of Pen G every 6 hours until all symptoms has disappeared. 1cc per 10-20lbs. Higher than normal dosages of Pen g are needed to cross the blood brain barrier. Dexamethasone can also be given to reduce brain swelling. Please consult your vet on the dosage of Dex and please be aware that dex will abort kids. Listeriosis is a bacterium that can live pretty much anywhere and invades the brain and brain stem. Adult goats are more likely to come down with listeriosis. Since this is bacteria it CAN be contagious

 

· Lutalyse (Prescription) Used to bring a doe into heat or cause an abort of an early pregnancy not desired. If a doe has an unwanted breeding, wait 11 days and then give her a shot of lutalyse. We use 2cc in the muscle. Although Lutalyse will bring a doe into heat, it does not mean that she produced an egg.

 

· Mannheimia haemolytica - Bronchopneumonia caused by Pasteurella multocida or Mannheimia haemolytica has a cranioventral lung distribution and affects sheep and goats of all ages worldwide. It can be particularly devastating in young animals. It is a common cause of morbidity and mortality in lambs and kids, especially in those that have not received adequate colostrum or in which passive colostral immunity is waning. The disease appears to occur most often in animals that have undergone recent stress such as transportation, weaning, or commingling with animals from Salmonella typhimurium This disease effects 3 age groups: 1-week old babies, kids at 2-8 weeks old and adults. Prognosis can be from grave to guarded in order of age group, adults having the best prognosis. Young baby kids will have a black tarry sometimes stringy and blood streaked diarrhea. Newborns may die in the first 36 hours of life with little or no signs (there may be signs of depression). Occasionally gaseous stomach or pain in the gut or diarrhea may be seen. In older kids, the onset of depression and anorexia is sudden, followed by a profuse, watery foul-smelling yellow to greenish-brown diarrhea. Fever as high as 107 may be present. Affected kids quickly get severely dehydrated, weak and go recumbent. Some may die in 8 hours of onset of diarrhea , most die within 24-48 hours. Fever usually subsides after 24 hours and becomes sub-normal as the baby becomes shocky begins to fail. Any time a goat is under stress (moving into a new environment, taking an antibiotic or even changing their herd mates), we might give a dose of Probios gel (purchased in a tube, labeled for goats). Note: this item can be purchased at Tractor Supply Company or any feed store. Remember you need to know how your goat reacts and treat the goat not the whole herd. It is great, and I give it before I transport an animal that I know will become Trailer sick. This is important to me on long trips. Probios keeps the rumen in good working order. You can also use non-flavor yogurt if you can not get Probios. This is a quick cure and I use it as a pick me up when they just are not acting quite right. Another excellent product for stress is Calf Pac and it also is easy tokeep around the farm 


· Mastitis: Symptoms: Swollen red hot utter, fever, clumps or blood in the milk, doe off her feed and depressed. Prevention: Cut the feed ration down by at least 1/2 at weaning time switch from legume hay to grass. some times if it's feasible leave one kid on for a week longer so that the doe has a chance to slow down her milk production. We have culled does out for having large or any problem utters that don't dry up after the kids are weaned. It can be just to much trouble. Treatment: When we first started in goats we had a bunch of old dairy animals with huge utters that drug almost on the ground. I learned that mastitis can be caused by Staph, Strept or E-coli and the type of antibiotics is different depending on which kind it is. My first choice was usually Penicillin G twice a day large doses of 5 or 6cc as well as intramammary infusion tubes. If this doesn't work in a few days then you have to try another type of injectable antibiotic. But in my experience if you wait to treat while you do a culture on the bacteria your doe is going to be very sick and maybe die anyways. Milk out the utter twice a day into a container to remove the infection, careful dispose of it don't milk it on the ground you don't want to contaminate the pen. Continue to insert the infusion tubes twice a day for several days each time you milk the doe out. If it is gangrenous mastitis you need to treat it very aggressively with antibiotics call your vet. The skin over the infected half will turn blue and cold and if the goat survives most of the time the affected tissue will no longer be functional. Sometimes the tissue affected on one side will be so badly damaged that it will die and fall off and the doe will still live.


· Mineral Oil (OTC) Giving mineral oil is very effective in getting a goat that has over eaten grain to speed that grain on its way. Vegetable oil will add to the digestive load and can cause more harm than good. Mineral oil is not digestible, and I have used it with no problems at all. Feed that is overeaten ferments, causes gas, and acidosis to occur, which can lead to death. The object is to speed it out of there without adding to the digestive load.

 

· Naxel (Ceftiofur Sodium) (Prescription) Excellent broad-spectrum antibiotic for respiratory illnesses (pneumonia). Comes in two bottles...one bottle contains a powder which must be kept refrigerated and another bottle of sterile water. When the two are mixed, they keep for only seven days. So, draw up syringes in dosages of 1/2 cc 1 cc 2 cc and 3 cc, put needle caps on them, place the filled syringes in a Ziploc bag, label and date it, and put it in the freezer. Syringes thaw quickly, but hold the needle cap up, because sometimes the medication will settle into the needle cap. 

Dosages on the bottle are insufficient for goats. If newborn kids have respiratory distress or e.Coli infections, they must receive a minimum dosage IM of 1/2 cc daily for 5 consecutive days. A 100-pound goat needs at least 5-6 cc's of Naxcel IM over the 5-day course of treatment. 


· Nuflor (Florfenicol) (Prescription) Same as Naxcel. Administer IM every other day for a minimum of three injections. Dosage is 1 cc per 25 lbs. Refrigerate Oral Ruminate Gel (OTC) Should always be used after the completion of antibiotic therapy and treatment for diarrhea/scours. Also works well when shipping goats. Refrigerate Oxytocin (Prescription) Use when a doe kids and does not pass her afterbirth. Must be used before the cervix closes (within approximately five hours after kidding). Causes contractions that expel the afterbirth. This is not a comfortable experience for the doe, so use it sparingly. 

Dosage is 1.5 cc per 100 lbs. Vet has recommend we use .5 cc to a doe


· Nutridrench:  has vitamins, minerals, dextrose and provides energy, nutritional support and stimulates the appetite. (It is also good for weak newborns.) 


· PROPYLENE GLYCOL An oily liquid that comes in 1 gallon containers and is used for Ketosis in does. It is also used to help balance the Ph after high stress situations that would lead to stomach acidity. Use 50-60 cc twice a day for an adult doe until she is back on her feed. Administer orally only. If you do not have all the ingredients for Baby Magic, you can use this, or molasses, or Light Karo Syrup to help, but Baby Magic is the preferred, for Ph. This freezes at well above 32*F, so store indoors, in a controlled temperature environment. Does not affect the milk.


· Oral Ruminant Gel - Over-the-counter product which should always be used after the completion of antibiotic therapy and treatment for diarrhea/scours. Probios is a well-known brand name. Also works well when shipping goats. Take along several tubes and administer Probios to each animal at least once per day during the entire journey. Helps lessen the stress and settle the stomach. Keep refrigerated in warm climates.


· Oxytetracycline is a broad-spectrum antibiotic, active against a wide variety of bacteria. However, some strains of bacteria have developed resistance to this antibiotic, which has reduced its effectiveness for treating some types of infections.


· Pasteurella Multocida It kills more slowly. The goat will go off feed, look  ‘hollow’, stand very still, head level or down, tail level or down and move around very reluctantly. If you try to catch the goat, it will demonstrate respiratory distress: Nasal flaring, intercostal muscle breathing (muscles between the ribs) and open mouth breathing. There may or may not be fever. If not treated immediately, the animal can have permanent scarring and or consolidation of the lungs, which reduces the respiratory volume permanently. 

I vaccinate with Super Poly Bac B Somnus by Texas Vet Labs: a cattle vaccine. I use a 1cc SQ initial dose, and half a cc as a booster in 14-21 days. Goats that have had pneumonia have better immunity if vaccinated a third time. Signs of Pneumonia Fever with temp 104 to 106 Painful cough ( will hear a crackle like sound in the lungs Nasal discharge Anorexia ( not eating) Depression Polio can occur when there is pneumonia Causes and Optimal conditions for pneumonia caused by P. multocida and M. haemolytica include the following: · Viral diseases · Poor nutritional management, undernourishment, or sudden change in diet · Sudden environmental changes · Transportation stress · High air humidity · Crowded pens with poor ventilation, or where animals have been relocated or transported can cause outbreaks. · Poor hygiene and barn ventilation · CL (caseous lymphadenitis) infections · Severe internal parasites (worms and coccidia) 


· How to treat Pneumonia  1. Nuflor 6cc SQ/100lbs as an initial dose, then 3cc SQ/100lbs every day for at least 5 days. In kids I do not give less than 3cc SQ of Nuflor period, they tend to die more easily, and do not have the reserve to survive a profound infection without aggressive treatment. Nuflor is not an amino glycoside and does not attack organs. I give Excenel due to the stability of this med. We give it at 3cc per 100lbs once a day for 5days.  2. I use Bovi Sera or Polyserum, which has the antibodies to Pasturella Multocida, Pasturella Hemolytica, Salmonella, E Coli, and Actinomyces Pyogenes. I give 10-15cc Sq. to a large animal, 7cc to a big kid, and not less than 5cc to a sick kid. You can use Bovi Sera also, it is a similar product. This can make the difference in life or death. 

3. I give Banamine 1cc /100lbs IM as often as every 8 hours for severe respiratory distress. Frequency of the dose of Banamine should be every 12-24 hours in most cases: discontinue when the animal is no longer in acute distress. Banamine has several functions: it is a smooth muscle relaxant, so it eases respiratory distress. It is anti- prostaglandin, so it helps protect a pregnancy. It is anti-endotoxin, so it helps protect from toxins produced by the bacteria that damage vital organs. It is also anti-pyretic (reduces fever). 

4. Give a large loading dose of Thiamine to a big goat IM to start, and to get blood levels up fast. Depletion of thiamine caused massive brain damage. 

5. Then, I mix at least 1,000-2000 mg thiamine with 10 cc long acting penicillin, and give SQ. this dispenses the thiamine over 24 hours and keeps blood levels stable. I do not like to give thiamine every 3 hours, when this works as well. Every 6 hours is not often enough. 

********* If kids do not respond to this treatment after the first 24 hours you can also treat with Albon 500mg-750mg twice a day ******** If the animal does not respond to Nuflor within 24 hours, the treatment can be augmented with Sulfa drugs: Albon 500mg-750 mg twice a day for an adult animal. I prefer Septra

******** If the animal does not improve within 24 hours, then Batril is the next drug of choice, but I avoid using this except as a last resort, on valuable breeding animals, and only with a vet recommendation. Possible drugs to use: ¨ Penicillin ¨ Oxytetracycline ¨ Ampicillin ¨ Tylosin ¨ Tetracycline ¨ Florfenicol ¨ Ceftiofur ¨ Bovi Sera Bovi Sera is an absolute MUST HAVE for any goat owner. Useful in the prevention and treatment of conditions such as pneumonia and enterotoxemia, passive immune failure in newborns and shipping fever complex in adults, Bova Sera provides an immediate boost to the immune system allowing goats to get back on their feet. Bovi Sera acts much the same as Goat Serum although goats are not listed on the label. For larger herds, Bovi Sera is very cost-effective. DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION: Inject subcutaneously or intramuscularly and repeat according to judgment of user. Administer at 12-24 hour intervals until improvement is noted. Use multiple sites or IV for large doses. It is recommended to limit injections to no more than 10ml per injection site. Prevention: Provides immediate and short-term protection lasting 7-21 days Calves – 20-40ml as soon after birth as possible Cattle – 50-75ml Sheep – 10-15ml Treatment: Can be used in conjunction with antibiotic treatments Calves – 40-100ml Cattle – 75-150ml Sheep – 20-40ml Dosage of 10 cc sub-Q injection for adults and 5 cc sub-Q injection for newborns Currently available only in the 20 ml and 250 ml size!

· Penicillin (OTC) (PCN or pen) is a group of antibiotics which include penicillin G (intravenous use), penicillin V (use by mouth), procaine penicillin, and benzathine penicillin (intramuscular use). Penicillin antibiotics were among the first medications to be effective against many bacterial infections caused by staphylococci and streptococci. Penicillins are still widely used today, though many types of bacteria have developed resistance following extensive use.


· Pneumonia: This is one of the most common respiratory problems in small ruminants. They say this usually occurs in kids from what I read it occurs when infectious and non-infectious agents get into the lungs and the lung become inflamed. This can be anything from dust to dirt even. Stress of any kind- shipping, goat shows, etc., - will lower an animal’s resistance, making it more susceptible to infection. In goats, respiratory infection seems to be a common sequala to stress. ​​​ 


· Propylene Glycol : assists in the conversion of glucose into energy.

 

· Pregnancy Toxemia:  Pregnancy Toxemia is typically seen in does carrying more than two kids. Does who are obese or very thin are also more at risk. The condition develops due to a reduced ability to consume enough food and obtain energy from their diet to meet the energy demands of the doe and her kids. 80% of the growth of the kids occurs during the last 6 weeks. Pregnancy toxemia is the same as preeclampsia in women. It’s a metabolic disease of does that occurs in the final weeks of pregnancy (usually the last 1 to 3 weeks). Signs of the condition, due to low glucose (sugar) levels include a gradual decrease in food intake, depression or inactivity, down and unable to rise, tremors, wobbly gait, weakness, swelling of the feet, weight shifting, walking tenderly as if their feet hurt, and teeth grinding. If left untreated or not treated quickly enough, this condition can result in the death of the doe and her kids. of gestation. As the doe’s uterus  enlarges, there is less room for her stomach (rumen) to fill with feed or there simply may be no way for the doe to eat enough. In order to meet the nutritional requirements of the growing kids and still maintain her own body, the doe’s liver begins to convert stored fat into sugar for energy. This process (gluconeogenesis) is also what causes the ketone production and why it is critical that the doe be in good condition, not thin or obese and have plenty of good feed available in the last weeks prior to kidding. If possible, an ultrasound at 45-50 days of pregnancy is high recommended to identify does with multiple fetuses. This allows for more intensive management and observation of those that are more prone to the development of pregnancy toxemia. If ultra-sounding is not possible, pay attention to does that are overly large for their stage of gestation and monitor their eating habits and behavior closely. Make note of the ‘pecking order’ during feeding time and make sure some are not being pushed out and not receiving adequate nutrition. Chances are good that a doe that looks like this is carrying more than just twins. Early diagnosis is critical to managing this potential fatal condition. Once the doe is down and refuses to get up, or if ketone levels have been high and 2 days of drenching have not reduced ketone levels to moderate or low, the decision must be made to induce or have a C-Section performed. In some cases, the doe is more important to the breeding program than the kids and the kids may have to be sacrificed. It is extremely risky to not induce a doe with high ketone levels that is not responding to treatment. If left too long, the doe may lack sufficient energy to even deliver the kids and the risk of losing both the doe and the kids is great. It is also possible for the kids to die due to pregnancy toxemia and leave the doe with a potentially fatal infection called septicemia. Preventing pregnancy toxemia involves four management goals. 1. Show or obese does should lose excess weight and very thin does should be fed to gain some weight prior to breeding and all bred does should be maintained on a maintenance diet until the final month of pregnancy at which point their feed intake should be increased. Growing kids more than double a doe’s nutritional requirement. 2. There should be ample room for exercise (exercise is extremely important), and control of other conditions that might result in reduced feed intake or increased energy demand, such as parasitism, adequate shelter from bad weather or illness. You may also worm and vaccinate your does about 30 days prior to kidding. 3. During the last 3-4 weeks of pregnancy, monitor pregnant does for the signs of pregnancy toxemia and test their urine using Ketostix. (As soon as a doe gets up, she will usually urinate, have the Ketostix ready and insert it into the urine stream, or catch some in a cup and dip the stick into it.) Separate, increase feed intake, and begin drenching at the first sign of ketones. Worm or insure your does are free of parasites that can drain their energy resources. Ketostix – can be purchased at any drug store or pharmacy 4. Does confirmed carrying 3-4 fetuses or those showing ketones on the Ketostix should be offered continual access to a high energy feed during the last month of gestation. (Feed that contains some of the following corn, milo, barley, wheat or cottonseed meal, soybean hull pellets and the label reads 16% or more protein. I do not feed whole or ‘just’ cracked corn as it can lead to founder and other issues.) Prepared feed containing the additive Rumensin or Monensin can also be helpful as those ingredients increase feed utilization in the rumen. At 3 to 4 weeks prior to kidding, increase the feed amount and quality gradually so as not to upset the normal function of the rumen, which could also cause pregnancy toxemia as well. Treating pregnancy toxemia. Again, it cannot be stressed enough that diagnosing the early stages of pregnancy toxemia is key to the success of treating it. Have the Ketostix readily available, (an empty syringe case works well and is good to catch urine if you need to) and test suspect or multiple (more than 2 kids) does daily. Dosing Syringe – Drencher (Different sizes available)  Treatment: Adult Boer goat: 10cc sq. penicillin, 10cc oral penicillin ( to kill the bacteria in the gut causing the problem) 1 gram (1,000mg) of thiamin SQ or IM. I have given it IV, but do not recommend it to novices. I give the thiamin 1 gram twice on day one. On day two, I restart the rumen with Calf Pac, and continue with thiamin oral 500mg, and 500mg SQ. On day three, after the rumen is going again, I continue with the thiamin oral 500 mg twice a day or 1 gram once a day, given SQ. Treatment must continue until the goat is recovered. If the goat is blind, put it in a small pen so it can find feed and water. Treat until symptoms are gone. If you find the goat down, and paddling its feet, the prognosis is very poor. Most of these goats die. Polio often succeeds other illnesses. If a goat is sick, I always give thiamin at least once a day, and Calf Pac to be sure the gut organisms don’t get ‘off’. Polio can occur when there is pneumonia, or enterotoxemia, moving to a rea, changing feed, small grain field, grain overload, or anything that upsets the gut. Listeriosis is very similar in presentation, but is bacterial, the fever is high, and the goat may circle, and or have a drooping face on one side or the other. 


· Red Cell - This over-the-counter product can be purchased at discount stores (Wal-Mart), feed stores, and mail-order houses. Generally thought of as a "horse" medication, Red Cell can be used to combat anemia in goats. Packaged in quart bottles, use it in conjunction with Vitamin B12 injections or as a stand-alone treatment. Red Cell should be administered daily via mouth for at least one week in no less than three cc amounts for an average-sized goat.


· RE-SORB oral electrolites. Comes in powdered form and is used for re-hydrating sick animals, regardless of age. Can be used as an oral drench, put into baby bottles for kids to suck, or mixed into pans of drinking water. Each packet should be mixed with ½ gallon warm water. Use this or other similar products in conjunction with Lactated Ringers Solution on extremely dehydrated goats. Does not affect milk.


· SAFE GUARD (fenbendazole 10%) Also marketed as Panacur, for horses. This is one of the white wormers, and I’m ever so sorry that it ever listed the idea that it is good for goats! This is the same medicine as in Valbazen, but in a lesser strength, and this is NOT strong enough to get the job done! You have no idea how many people I talk through dying goats that believe that their goats have been properly wormed, and invariably under those circumstances, it turns out that they used Safe Guard. This is for horses, NOT good enough for goats!!! If you are using Safe Guard get rid of it. All you are doing is building an immunity to the medicine contained in it without getting the benefits of using the medicine in a strong enough strength. Please trust me on this one!!! Even if you use more of it, you are NOT increasing the strength, only the volume.


· Spectam Scour Halt - Over-the-counter product to control diarrhea in adults and kids over one month of age. Scour Halt is a pig scour medication which works well on goats. Follow label directions when pumping this pinkish-red liquid into the goat's mouth. Follow up with oral ruminant gel (Probios) to repopulate the gut with live bacteria necessary for food digestion.


· SULFADIMETHOXINE 12.5% Marketed as DI-METHOX 12.5%. This is the generic for Albon, and very nearly as good, at a portion of the price. See Albon for details on dosing and length of treatments.

· Tagamet - Over-the-counter product. Use in conjunction with Primor for gut-related pain resulting from illnesses like coccidia. Dosage is one half of a HR200 Tagamet (200 mg) for 3-5 days.


· Theodur - Vet prescription. Often used when bronchitis exists to clear air passages. Precise dosage is not known for goats, but this writer has, under vet direction and supervision, use 1/2 tablet per day on a 15-20 pound kid. Theodur suppresses the appetite; the producer must make sure that the animal is kept hydrated

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· Thiamine (Vitamin B1) - Vet prescription. Used in conjunction with large dosages of antibiotics to treat listeria and goat polio, diseases which demand veterinary assistance or death is highly likely. Moldy feed and hay cause these illnesses. Dosage is 1 cc up to three times per day IM. Keeps best in warm climates when refrigerated.


· TODAY, TOMORROW, QUARTERMASTER ETC. These are single-treatment teat syringes that are supposed to help overcome mastitis. In a perfectly clinical world, where the goat would stand perfectly still while you shove something foreign up their teat, this might work. Ideally, you are supposed to completely milk out the teats twice a day, and then stick NOT MORE THAN 1/8” of this syringe, designed for cows incidentally, up the milk tube and hold it steady while you back-flush the teat, working it up into the udder. In reality, in the three cases where my former vet insisted that I do this, I have done far more harm to the goat than the good that the medicine ever could have done. I do agree that you need to milk the teats completely out, twice a day. After that is where this treatment and I part company!!! I would never use these products again, even on a dying goat!!!


· Toltrazuril 5% 200mL DESCRIPTION: Toltrazuril is the result of extensive research efforts to help treat EPM (equine protozoal myeloencephalitis), which causes a multitude of effects that manifest in a variety of symptoms. Our solution represents a new standard in coccidiosis control, belonging to the chemical group of symmetric triazinons not related to any other anticoccidial drug currently in use in veterinary medicine. Our 5% solution affects all intracellular structures of the one-celled protozoan parasite called Sarcocystis neurona. Toltrazuril is highly effective and has demonstrated the following benefits:

-prevents and reduces the severity of lesions

-stops oocyst shedding

-improves growth rate

-improves feed conversion 

HOW IT WORKS:

Our Toltrazuril 5% solution is suitable for both therapy and metaphylaxis, and acts as an effective tool for controlling coccidia-related problems. By damaging the intracellular developmental stages of Coccidia, toltraturazil affects schizonts, microgametes, and macrogametes without damaging the cell tissue of the host animal. Findings from studies suggest the drug interferes with the division of the nucleus and the activity of mitochondria, which is responsible for respiratory metabolism in the parasite. In the magrometes, toltrazuril damages wall-forming bodies, and in all intracellular developmental stages, severe vacuolisation occurs due to inflation of the endoplasmatic reticulum. Toltrazuril does not interfere with immune development, and usually does not require follow-up treatment, even in advanced infections (after three to five days). However, the efficacy of the drug is independent from the severity of the infection. 

Toltrazuril is quite lipid soluble so absorption and distribution into tissue is very good. Toltrazuril 5% has a unique mode of action and there is no reason to be concerned with an adverse reaction or a drug-drug reaction. As Toltrazuril only has activity against protozoa, there is no effect on upset of intestinal flora and the formulation is very well tolerated. To be soluble in water, the product undiluted is very alkaline, pH 11.4. Direct oral dosing of the undiluted product is very irritating to mucous membranes and will cause immediate vomiting. Make sure you are using the correct formulation.

Toltrazuril is a relatively new treatment that may actually cure coccidiosis, instead of just suppressing it. The drug is readily available in Canada and Australia, but not the US. While other drugs have been used to control Coccidia infections, they do not provide a cure, and the animal may continue to be infectious to other animals.


· TUMS This is an over-the-counter drug store item that can be helpful when used in conjunction with oral antibiotics, to help maintain the Ph balance, and keep the antibiotics from upsetting the stomach or doing harm to the stomach lining. For gut-related illnesses such as Coccidiosis, or when you need a quick infusion of absorbable Calcium. Dosage is 1 Tums, per 10 lbs., ground up and drizzled w/molasses, and add just enough hot water to make into something you can draw up in a syringe, and give orally, once a day for duration of oral antibiotics. In the case of a quick fix of Calcium, give once a day for 3-5 days.


· Tylosin (Prescription) is an antibiotic and a bacteriostatic feed additive used in veterinary medicine. Tylan 200 (tylosin) - Use 1 cc per 25 lbs. body weight for five consecutive days intramuscularly (IM). Keeps best in warm climates when refrigerated. It has a broad spectrum of activity against Gram-positive organisms and a limited range of Gram-negative organisms. [1] It is found naturally as a fermentation product of Streptomyces fradiae.[2] It is a macrolide antibiotic. Tylosin is used in veterinary medicine to treat bacterial infections in a wide range of species and has a high margin of safety. It has also been used as a growth promoting in some species, and as a treatment for colitis in companion animals.[2]

· Sore Feet. We use LA 200 on sore feet. We do not give as an injection; we clean the area then squirt LA 200 directly on the sore. This medication hurts the animal when it is injected. Also make sure that there is no obstruction in the hoof. This is important because if you do not get rid of the problem then it will not get better. For goats with persistent sore feet we have used the cattle vaccine, Volar, with outstanding results. The dose we give is 1 cc


· Urinary Calculi : Symptoms: young male or withered goats stretch out trying to urinate but very little is coming out, bloody urine, not eating, in pain swollen underneath because of urinary stones that are causing blockage. Over time the animal stops eating and drinking and urine builds up behind the stone causing either the bladder or urethra to rupture.  Prevention : Make sure there is always fresh water and minerals, be careful not to have an imbalance of feed the total ration should have a 2:1 or 2:5:1 calcium: phosphorus ration. The animals should always have a good amount of hay to eat. to much grain is usually the cause of this to young bucks. Salt added to the feed makes them drink more so they are less likely to have a blockage, ammonia Chloride can be added to your feed or put in your water if you have a reoccurring problem with this. Treatment: Not usually good news... If it is in the urethral process and it is not a hard stone it maybe possible to gently squeeze it out or the urethral process can be snipped off with a pair of scissors. The animal should be able to urinate right away. If in the case that the animal is still able to urinate, feed can be taken away for a day and and it can be dosed with ammonia chloride. Otherwise their are surgical procedures that your vet can do but in most cases the outcome is not good.


· VALBAZEN : (Fenbendazole 11.5%) This is the best broad-spectrum de-wormer for babies, bucks and does that you are certain are not pregnant. It can be used for longer periods consecutively without becoming immune, and it is the ONLY wormer that gets Tape Worms. It is also the ONLY wormer that will kill Lung Worms. This is the same medicine as Safe Guard, but in the proper strength!!! For safety, NEVER use on pregnant does, or does that even might be pregnant, as it can cause birth defects and/or abortion, especially in the first two trimesters. I don’t chance it with pregnancies…period!

Dosage is 1 cc, orally, per 25 lbs, if you are worming on a schedule of every 3 months and weather conditions are normal. If you are treating goats that are showing signs of being wormy, double the dose. Worm again in 10-14 days to catch the larva that hatches out. If you are using for Lung Worms, do the same thing again after an additional 10-14 days, for a total of 3 treatments in sequence.


· VEGETABLE OIL/CORN OIL : This is the usual grocery store kind of cooking oil. If you have a goat with an impacted rumen and need to move things along, this oil is preferred. There is a flavor to it, and will trigger the swallowing mechanism, so the oil will go to the rumen and not the lungs, as is the case in Mineral Oil. If a goat has broken into a feed bin and gorged, it is a good idea to give the goat oil to make things move along, rather than waiting for the gut to impact. If a goat is constipated, and you have nothing else on hand to help with that, use vegetable or corn oil, until you see the goat berries coming out looking oily. Oil may trigger diarrhea, so you may have to let the gut clean itself out, and then treat with Pepto Bismol to reestablish normal order.


· VITAMIN A & D : VET PRESCRIPTION NEEDED Best when administered SQ, for use when administering Calcium, as Vitamin D is what is needed in order to make Calcium absorbable. In cases, most often found in bucklings, where the legs are bending outward or refuse to straighten out, administer one dose, to allow them to utilize the Calcium in their milk. Also for use in Floppy Kid Syndrome. Generally one shot is all that is needed, but you can repeat in 60 days, if necessary. Dosage in babies is ¼ to ½ cc. Dosage for adult goats is 1-2 cc.


· VITAMIN B12 LIQUID : VET PRESCRIPTION NEEDED A vital component for goats who are anemic from worms or just about any illness related stress. Helpful with goats who have gone off their feed. Administer 1-2 cc, SQ, depending on severity of condition, per 100 lbs., using an 18 gauge needle, as this is very thick. Can repeat again in 2 weeks, if necessary. Store away from sunlight.


· Worms: Symptoms: Thinner than rest of herd for no reason, white eyes should have pink or red under bottom eye lid, coughing, anemia pale pink or grey gums, bottle jaw swelling under chin at night means it is filling up with fluid, not eating, rough coat, diarrhea. Prevention : Keep an eye on your stock don't wait to treat if an animal looks a bit thinner for no reason. Check the eyes and the gums. I found treating one or two animals that need it rather than treating all of them works best that way their is less resistance built up against the de-wormers. We rotate our pastures so that the grass never gets to low, that way they are not eating as much worm larva.  Treatment: Copper boluses help to keep their immunity stronger and also kills certain types of worms. Some times we use chemical wormers such as Cydectin or Valbazine and treat as needed. Not all animals (same with Copper Boluses only the ones that look like they need it). For the de-wormers give a dose and a half to the ones that need it. For young kids usually we weigh them regularly and if there is one that is not growing as well it gets treated. (see herd health program page for more information on how and why we deal with parasites the way we do.)

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